What is Borax Decahydrate

Calcium hypochlorite exists as a white granular powder and has the formula of Ca(OCl)2. It has a strong scent of chlorine but is more stable than chlorine. It exists as both anhydrous and hydrated forms, giving a basic aqueous solution.

The basicity of the solution arises from the hydrolysis reaction, where calcium hypochlorite is broken down into hypochlorous acid and calcium hydroxide. The basicity outweighs the acidity property since calcium hydroxide is a strong base and hypochlorous acid is a weak acid.

Calcium hypochlorite is a good chlorine derivative and can release chlorine upon reactions. Calcium hypochlorite can react with carbon dioxide to form calcium carbonate, releasing dichloride monoxide. Similarly, calcium hypochlorite can also react with hydrochloric acid to form calcium chloride, water and gaseous chlorineIt is a solid substitute for liquid sodium hypochlorite for water treatment and bleaching.

Manufacturing Process

Calcium Process
Calcium hypochlorite is manufactured using the calcium process, where chlorine is added to calcium hydroxide, yielding calcium hypochlorite, calcium chloride and water. However, this method was not very effective and became obsolete. It was replaced by the sodium process, which accounts for 70% of the total production of calcium hypochlorite.
Sodium Process
Calcium hypochlorite can also be manufactured using sodium process by chlorination of a slurry of lime and caustic soda and then dried under vacuum
                                                                         2 NaOH + Ca(OH)2 + 2 Cl2 → Ca(OCl)2 + 2 NaCl + 2 H2O
Calcium hypochlorite can be manufactured by chlorination of hydrated lime.
                                                                         2 Ca(OH)2 + 2 Cl2 → Ca(OCl)2 + CaCl2 + 2 H2O
Calcium hypochlorite may be achieved by drying a filter cake of neutral calcium hypochlorite dihydrate containing 30-50% water.

The Uses of Borax Decahydrate

Detergent Industry
Borax is most known for its use in detergent industry as borax helps with the removal of oily soils from fabrics, imparts alkalinity, pH buffering, and softening of the wash water.
Cosmetics & Toiletries
Borax decahydrate is used as a cross linking agent to emulsify waxes and other paraffin as the base of lotions, creams, and ointments
Pharmaceutical Industry
Borax is the source of borate that is a suitable polymer bed used in medicine to diagnose hyperglycemia in diabete mellitus.
Cleaning Industry
As stated earlier, broax is also commonly used for cleaning agent. In industrial institutional borax is used for cleaning compund and it can also clean hard surfaces such as metals, glass, ceramics.
Paper Industry
Borax decahydrate is also used for starch adhesive formulation for corrugated paper and paperboard.
Other Applications
Borax decahydrate is also used for polishing and waxes, and it can also be used as a car antifreeze formulations as it is highly soluble in ethylene glycol.
Hazards Identification

Hazard Warnings: Borax decahydrate may be harmful if swallowed and can cause serious eye iritation. It also suspected of damaging the unborn child.

Precautionary Statements: Obtain special Instructions before use If exposed or concerned, get medical advice/attention Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood. Wear protective gloves, eye protection. Dispose of contents/container to comply with local, state and federal regulations.


IUPAC NameSodium Hypochlorite
CAS No7778-54-3
EINECS No231-908-7
HS Code2828.10
SynonymCalcium Oxychloride


Appearancewhite or light-grey granular or powder
Effective chlorine%65.0
Insolubility%5.0 (max)
CaCl2%9.0 (max)